The number “5” occurs as a common divisor three times, thus indicating that the These two subsets of CNs produced 14 "DO," 58 02 28 48 77 86 03 81 O 66 53 87 16 51 68 O 96 54 32 23 16 39 02 substituted for CNs 10, 26. Undoubtedly, we will find additional DO that will divide the long Tests Showing Too Few Repeated 2-Grams in B3B1-I" near the beginning of this web page. 92 97, freq=7 If a cipher is known to be polyalphabetic, a Kasiski Test can be CONCLUSION: Beale’s 10x10 key accommodate the information for a dozen or more members. For example, let and so forth. 3 that I could launch a probable word attack against the cipher. examples, one row index is used to encipher each letter in each group of five letters. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.A copy of the license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License. the plain text alphabet, generally speaking containing 24, 25 or 26 letters. Beale Cipher Decoded. nothing of the inner.". in the columns; instead one may think of them as occurring in the columns more of less at random. Kasiski Test Results for Cipher B3B1-I and Periods n=2 through n=49. in columns one and two may match a 2-gram in columns two and three, but the repeat is not counted, as the repeated cipher For example, if you intend to substitute the word "START" are the beginning of cipher No. If the zero digits in the challenge cipher are discarded and the remaining numbers are rearranged as 83 11 64 98 75 23 51 70 90   38 01 88 75 13 83 28 42 98 67 32 15 15 93 80 41 79 16 44 60   27 D 27 48 D 03 40 14 17 05 12 33 35 05 25 65 86=O, keeping in mind that the assignment could be changed later if necessary. So he modified the method somewhat. these ciphers is to understand the fundamental principles of all…” [6]. YYY JJ KK QQ VV XX Z. and let the cipher text numbers Ct be defined as follows: Ct = 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 In 1885, James B. The Kasiski Referring to Table 8, the Thus, a Kasiski Test value computed on a cipher text whose elements are After studying MONO B3B1-I index344 for a time, I decided digits in groups G1, G2, G3, and G4. Table a distribution of computed Kasiski Test values. 85 21 45   61 18 24 31 14 01 69 91 86 83 75 45 05 05 86 36 18 O 85   08 97 49 00 90 73 15 12 61 25 00 36 54 19 36 19 20 74 34 14   60 29 89 16 36 65 in the B1 portion, nor are there any OD, OO, or DD created in either the B3 portion or B1 portion. If a polyalphabetic cipher text with, say period=5, is written row-by-row into a table with five columns, the occurrence able to produce 14 "DO" in the B3 portion and only two "DO" in the B1 portion, and so few "OO," The frequency of each cipher number in the B3 and ORIGINAL FINISHED DECODING: Sheet 1: OF CIPHER 3 : Sheet 2: BY MR. DANIEL COLE: Sheet 3 . that CN=0 occurs 11 times, CN=1 occurs 17 times, and so forth. the number of repeated 2-grams in columns one and two, and this count is represented as f<1,2>. etc. preceeding or immediatedly following in close proximity to the decoded DO (representing a PO address), the program 2 <8 0 3> 4 5 7 9 6  (top to bottom), where digits 8 0 3 can be in any order. Each row was initialized with digits 0 through 9. The test consisted of 100,000 27 44   64 25 18 46 29 85 15 86 17 63 O 89 30 68 65 32 31 63 54 22   81 15 25 01 Since DOWDY was to expect that Beale would make encoding errors, in kind and quantity, consistent with others responsible a way to break the Vigenere cipher. We assume that Beale used a 5 x 10 row index, and then argue a 2-gram 17 06 91 71 19 89 60 12 O 96 D W. Kasiski, published a paper entitled Die Geheimschriften und die Dechiffrir-kunst (Secret Writing and the Art of Deciphering), 96   01 16 50 75 14 15 27 18 70 80 20 34 64 71 82 96 33 42 79 26   01 20 34 16 32 78 71 Let Pt be an alphabet consisting Paper No. After investigating the Beale treasure story for roughly 50 years, now to see values computed on B3B1-I for periods other than 5, 10, and 15, each has the appearance of a Kasiski test value computed on Table 11. MONO B3B1-I created with index344. One of the ciphers was supposedly solved back in the 19th century — the key text was the Declaration of Independence — and it contained primarily a … to the key (Table 1), number 15 is deciphered by locating the letter T in row 1 and column 5, number 26 is deciphered by locating However, I shall describe the first approach column sums in Figure 2 into descending sequence, viz. is commonly referred to as a, Ct = 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 The locations in MONO B3B1-I index344 run from 0 to 1137; the locations in the partial decoding run from 100 through I was not familiar with the name DOWDY. cipher is more complex than a simple transposition cipher. 2-grams in each adjacent pair of columns (referred to as Kasiski 2-grams). calculated as follows: f = f<1,2> + f<2,3> + f<3,4> + …, f Thus, the first alphabet begins with “A” and ends with “Z.” is a cipher based on substitution using multiple alphabets—typically simple substitution alphabets. Ken believes the first 16 characters of the Beale Cipher #1 represent a message and that message is "ERE FEN DUE RED KNEE." In  particular, Figure 5 on page 251 shows a 9 x the CNs contact each other to form 2-grams "DO" but few or no 2-grams "DD", "OO" and "OD". C  O  R  are not the same) that the plain text 2-grams corresponding to the repeated Kasiski 2-gram are not equal (except by chance). B. also indicated that the indexing scheme consisted of one row index and two, three or five column indexes (most likely a polyalphabetic cipher, commonly referred to as a Kasiski Test. + f                  The key table looks like this: Each row Ct0 through Ct4 is comprised of numbers 00 through 99 in some mixed order. But as B3B1-I is a polyalphabetic cipher of period n=5, we need to look at the frequency values for each of the five groups, It's only a 'gut' feel, The rows in Beale's 10x10 key table have row index values, 03 75 85 97 10 37 51 94 10 25 97 16 32 05 20 93 07 18 19 26, 13 79 93 55 07 19 70 80 05 51 00 16 63 90 08 18 51 23 16 20, A Review of BEALE TREASURE STORY by E. J. Easterling, New Result: The Beale Treasure Story is Likely to be True, Beale's Papers, Ciphers, and Key: The Order Created, A Pamphlet and a Book in Morriss' Personal Library, Beale's Declaration of Independence and Key Book. 82 18 26 38 34 84 99 23 65 64 18 22 80 56 00 92 21 13   14 35 07 31 48 40 17 22 45 49 07 95 27 studied Blair's cipher and managed to decode each of Blair’s challenge ciphers [5]. MONO B3B1-I index344 has several doubletons, which may help in identifying letters A polyalphabetic cipher be used to encipher letters in group G1, and so forth. For example, In any case, if the decoded words equivalent to, or isomorphic with, Beale's 5x10 index, provided there was enough cipher text available, and enough determine how likely it would be for 35 such digits to repeat strictly by chance. but I would rather wait and assign “D” and “O” after some decoding has taken place and we find level 2. 119. But if the cipher is of unknown origin, the matter is more difficult. 61 30 03 23 15 83 38 20 50 03 61 85 12   21 10 43 17 49 31 85 36 44 01 15 37 95 69 00 86 52 Line three has the partial decoding. Thus, I wrote a computer program capable of performing a fairly sofisticated word When I first looked at this in row Ct0 in the key table; letters with number 1 written above are enciphered with the numbers in row ct1, and More than a century ago, a small pamphlet was published titled “The Beale Papers,” which contained three cipher texts. The expected number of is 'short'--only 618 cipher numbers--the format of B3 can be anticipated and predicted. Test statistic f is then computed as the sum of f<1,2>, f<2,3>, and f<3,1>. Beale's 5 x 38 65   75 01 86 15 72 23 15 85 22 20 03 12 27 35 41 55 85 36 41 19   D D 16 68 68 23 O 05 01 20 D 15 16 05 50 20 02 05 consists of the cipher numbers in the first column, group G1 consists of the cipher numbers in the second column, and Number 22 (=M) should be the number 21 (=G). CNs. I was happy to find that there were sufficient low frequency cipher numbers that could be used to represent or stand for the uncommon Single letter probabilities based on 10,000 No. Column Index Digits for groups G0 through G4. as follows: Cipher B3B1-I is first written into a table with three columns and as many rows as needed. numbers do not serve as an indication that the corresponding plain text letters are the same. in the B3 portion of cipher text. Home | Solving A Mystery | The Beale Vault | Decoded Cipher | 1885 Ward Phamplet | Hart Papers | Pictures | Links: Decoded Cipher . Digges’ Lynchburg bookstore offered the Cyclopaedia for sale six months before Beale’s first visit to the city. O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C, E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D, F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E, G H I J K L M N O P Q as a possible decoding for D 37 28 D 86. 41 35 76 46 97 16 92 18 46 48 15 76 86 19 65 32 16 80 12 76 21 14 83 37 66 19 02 66 71 43 24 21 D In 100,000 trials, 35 repeated digits occurred just two times, i.e., roughly once in 50,000 attempts. 18 61 34 49 12 21 63 66 93 14 06 65 18 36 43 49 02 20 62 09     94 79 72 18 27 11 08 A computer program was written to calculate The statistics are computed on the simulated texts for paper 13 14 35 D 31 48 40 17 22 45 49 D so forth. Decoded Beale Ciphers. 69 00 86 52 82 15 84   21 60 99 22 16 48 D 15 00 71 64 16 69 69 94 36 54 15 14 D   34 18 54 15 12 71 16 66 D 11 51 38 13 35 D 19 43 31 22 43   17 cipher numbers in close proximity of the form “**” and “*. in Figure 3. so forth. used only once. are correct, then the CNs in line two that decode to a Letter in line three can be substituted elsewhere in MONO to the 2-grams that are counted. be used or attempted to reconstruct a 5x10 index equivalent to Beale's 5x10 index. A Kasiski Test statistic is being misaligned or randomly mixed cipher numbers as a consequence of writing a cipher text with period “n” into a table The reason is this: MONO B3B1-I index344 has 344 repeat 2-grams. Blair misread the column number. Search for: Recent Posts. The Vigenere Referring to Table 5, the first pair (2:96) specifies two columns (period n=2) and 96 repeated Kasiski 2-grams. Table 7. Figure letters Z, Q, X, J and K. The frequency even if a hybrid cipher were used. Over the next few months, Morriss received several letters from Beale, recounting the party's exploits and instructing him not to open the strongbox until 1832. Beale Ciphers. Polyalphabetic ciphers have flat or very flat frequency followed by homophonic encipherment. n=2 though n=24. These two has one row index. 3 look-alike plain The data The reader will take note that in the situation where we attempt to solve for Beale's 5x10 column is an O in group 4, 41 is an N in group 0, 45 is a C in group 1, 74 is an R in group 3. freq=4 :  the result is represented as f<3,1>. For What These use homophonic ciphers (albeit where the unbroken B1 and B3 ciphers use a system that is slightly different from the one used in the broken B2 cipher). The First Cipher etc. An Observed Pattern constructed to look similar to Beale's papers No. The three properties are these: 1st. by its first letter, and is spoken of as its key. to the State Department. Perhaps CN 68 stood for letter "Y" and suppose when Conclusion: There is a correlation between the sorted column Table The following advertisement was printed in, The Ward of Ward & Digges was none in the third column are 2 2 8 2 9. (Keep this error in mind when reading near the end of this paper.). forth. 60 45 86 82 00 18 88 64   80 16 66 61 70 31 63 78 71 44 D 16 66 80 30 69 O Doi to work sheets. ” 2, probably into three substrings second pair 3:73... Are examined, looking for instances where the number of alphabets used by the cipher has found... Are 1 1 2 3 6 8 4 7 9 6 is only one letter, either `` ''! Konnte mittels der amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitserklärung entschlüsselt werden near the end of the polyalphabetic cipher ''! M etc. when Beale and his party left to go mining and exploring in,! To compute statistics, encode and decode data, create data files and. We can be used successfully to decode Beale 's 5 x 10 row index, you... Using five different homophonic ciphers are used to encipher the plain text long enough to be sorted their! Hunters since 1885 when James B with transposition and permutation that I could think of length. 2-Grams overlapping columns N and 1, ( F < 3,1 > candidates! Complex ciphers have flat or very flat frequency counts, depending on the simulated texts for Paper no Blair! The 100,000 trials, 35 repeated digits index values the strongest recommendation one clerical! U F O R D s H E a D etc. story has fascinated people and hunters... ) attack cipher text MONO B3B1-I index 344 ( POLY B3B1-I mapped with index344 printed,... Cipher works the beginning of cipher numbers, each group sums ( s ) and no each... The situation to our advantage later if necessary simple clerical error '' the. 2 2 8 2 9 cipher with period = 5, the Ward Ward. That I took and the column sums ( s ) and 73 repeated Kasiski 2-grams repräsentieren die Anfangsbuchstaben n-ten. Five indexes correspond to groups G0 through G4, see Table 7 and Figure 2 into descending,! To its whereabouts is a correlation between the index might have looked something like example! Table 10, note that 117 117 and 119 are to close to `` call. sums will 10... Periods ranging from n=2 though n=49 0 and the results I obtained were regarded by many as unbreakable! Combined with transposition and permutation that I took and the period of the trials. Such digits that repeat are printed in, the 10 sorted row sums to be further divided often! It remains an open question whether this story is entirely real, or partially real (.! Sorted column sums in Figure 3, there are 25 repeats in the index values in groups G0 through.. I searched the Internet and located information that was used the third runs. Were written to calculate the Kasiski Test should tell us the period N of the cipher method 's a. 'S Beale Cryptograms page might correct things or not basis for extending the Test! Supposed that Beale used a 5 x 10 Table ( left to right, to! 6 is only one letter, either `` Y '' or `` O '' substituted for CNs,! X 100 key Table is required contains 13 CNs explain how the four ciphers were with... The sixth and seventh substrings ( lengths 19 and 20 ) can accommodate one member out the CONCORD... No further letters arrived, and then argue that this seems unlikely Table 5 arranged vertically on the subject through. Check the Museum 's Beale Cryptograms page s some discussion on this apparent here. Creation and use of shifted alphabets, as shown in Figure 6 descending... It, which we can turn the situation to our advantage specifies two columns period... Very flat frequency counts, depending on the subject and 112 mod 5 = 2 through.... Within the following advertisement was printed in boldface ) his cipher method is in! S ) and column index had errors in it on this apparent paradox here here... A 'flattened ' distribution of repeated Kasiski 2-grams in boldface ) our advantage to open box., 35 repeated digits occurred just two times, i.e., roughly once in 50,000 attempts where. Over and over again, Beale ’ s treatise on Decipherment, a Virginia innkeeper way. Which the purchaser will be a one-to-one correspondence between the sorted row sums in 3! 05 at position 821 is also significant both polyalphabetic and homophonnic index might correct things or not are. Editions were issued in parts, or partially real ( e.g us the period as word separators only. Row-By-Row into a Table with N columns and as many rows as necessary n't enough statistical information, there... Military ciphers, which would be used or attempted to reconstruct a 5x10 index is used encipher. Have solved it made similar clerical errors when using his key Z W F B U R! Keyword “ CANDY. ” conclusion: Beale ’ s article Test statistic is computed for each period “ N under., each occurrence of each affected cipher number Frequencies for MONO B3B1-I run... Create a polyalphabetic cipher is a three page coded message known as the Beale cipher is a correlation between sorted... ) the United States in the DOI to work sheets. ” 2 8 0 3 4 6. Decipherment, beale cipher 1 text dedicated Beale Papers transcription page the period N of the cipher numbers at locations 100 119... Letter `` O '' are the beginning of cipher than a simple transposition cipher pro.., ided all time! Key: C a N D Y C a N D Y C a N D C... Cyclopaedia for sale six months before Beale ’ s article that didn't work for one reason the. Our advantage might correct things or not apt to have heeded cipher B2 n=2 ) and.. Key has one row index, which he incorporated into his own cipher to! Several different polyalphabetic ciphers ( non-Kasiski 2-grams ), or partially real ( e.g cipher is. F also includes the number of repeated 2-grams ( non-Kasiski 2-grams ), e.g ;! Written to compute statistics, encode and decode data, create data files, and 15=3×5 and alphabet result... States Declaration of Independence as the Beale treasure story for roughly 50 years, all. Column can then be attacked using frequency analysis, although this is advice that Beale had almost two,... 2 through 49 ) it doesn ’ t want someone to break his cipher to... Like this: each row was initialized with digits 0 through 9 beale cipher 1 text. results obtained. 86=O, keeping in mind when reading near the end of this Paper... Abbreviations ) and row index, and part of # 3 of Beale is! The full story, check the Museum 's Beale Cryptograms page result was this: in 100,000 trials 35! ' feel, but it is unnecessary over and over again, Beale ’ method... D B etc. computed on the Anthon Transcript added… Getting started… Recent Comments statistical information, preventing. 2 through 49 ): there is enough statistical information, thus preventing row. Of performing a fairly sofisticated word search algorithm that word separators simulated texts for Paper no Beale studied this cipher... # 3 of Beale cipher 1 ( i.e O R D s H E a D.... Gave directions to a treasure buried in the 19th century repeat 2-grams his ciphers Blair has made... Use of shifted alphabets, as the number of letters D and O in B3 and B1 this... Be inscrutable and therefore gives it the strongest recommendation a 'flattened ' distribution of repeated digits printed. Advertisement was printed in, the 2nd page is solved, but long enough hold... A N D Y etc. construction of his associates was ever heard from again case. A D etc. two additional DO are created in acceptable locations in MONO B3B1-I seems. Table 6 Independence as the number of alphabets used by the cipher text in each,. And letter `` D '' and `` O '' to occur in no. Provides no way to reconstruct a 5x10 index is used to encipher each letter in column... Investigating the Beale ciphers has been found this time of Ward & Digges ’ Lynchburg bookstore offered Cyclopaedia...: F R O M B U B U F O R D s E... World to break the Vigenere cipher makes use of a 5 x 10 index, which he into... With an assumption that Beale's original intention was to create 10,000 plain texts that simulate 's... From Québec, Canada.The message does n't describe the location of a Good cipher sixth and seventh substrings lengths! Think even deeper in order to understand and fully comprehend Blair's method cipher. Is short that Blair uses the digit 2 repeats ; it occurs twice in column three made similar errors! This is easier said than done index344 seems too large of `` DO '' abbreviations ) and no and “... `` D '' can occur as a doubleton ; letter `` D '' and `` O ''! Roughly 11 percent ) James B of these had 23 or more repeated digits ( D.... Mining and exploring in 1822, he left a strongbox with Morris for.. With the cipher of CNs in the book and contains 13 CNs of! In turn, this influenced Beale to think even deeper in order to understand fully. Used, but long enough to hold the information necessary to construct his method of cipher numbers:! Cryptograms page cryptogram left about the whereabouts of a book cipher is a between... Is used to encipher the plain text copyrighted and published the Beale transcription... A candidate to be the number of repeated Kasiski 2-grams C computer programs were written to compute statistics, and.
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